Why Americans are SHEEPLES: FLUORIDE
From: American Patriot Friends
Why Americans are SHEEPLES: FLUORIDE
To Whom It May Concern:
I, Oliver Kenneth Goff was a member of the Communist Party and
the Young Communist League, from May 2, 1936 to October 9, 1939. During
this period of time, I operated under the alias of John Keats and the
number 18-B-2. My testimony before the Government is incorporated in
Volume 9 of the Un-American Activities Report for the year 1939.
While a member of the Communist Party, I attended Communist
underground training schools outside the City of New York: In the
Bues Hall, and 113 East Wells Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The East
Wells Street School operated under the name of the Eugene Debs School.
Here, under the tutoring of Eugene Dennis, M. Sparks, Morris Childs,
Jack Kling and others, we were schooled in the art of revolutionary
overthrow of the established Government.
We were trained on how to dismantle and assemble mimeograph
machines, to use for propaganda purposes during the revolution; how
to work on guide wires and fuel lines of airplanes so that they would
either burst into flames or crash to the ground because of lack of
control; how to work on ties and rails to wreck trains; and also the
art of poisoning water supplies.
We discussed quite throughly the fluoridation of water supplies
and how we were using it in Russia as a tranquilizer in the prison
camps. The leaders of our school felt that if it could be induced into
the American water supply, it would bring-about a spirit of lethargy
in the nation; where it would keep the general public docile during a
steady encroachment of Communism. We also discussed the fact that
keeping a store of deadly fluoride near the water reservoir would be
advantageous during the time of the revolution, as it would give us
opportunity to dump this poison into the water supply and either kill
off the populace or threaten them with liquidation, so that they would
surrender to obtain fresh water.
We discussed in these schools, the complete art of revolution:
the seizure of the main utilities, such as light, power, gas, and water;
but it was felt by the leadership, that if a program of fluoridating
of the water could be carried out in the nation, it would go a long way
toward the advancement of the revolution.
The above statements are true.
/s/ Oliver Kenneth Goff
STATE OF COLORADO )
COUNTY OF ARAPAHOE )
OLIVER KENNETH GOFF, being first duly sworn upon his oath, deposes
and says that he has the above and foregoing instrument and knows the
contents thereof, and that the same are true of his own knowledge except
as to those matters stated on the information and belief as to those he
believes them to be true.
(SEAL)subscribed and sworn to before me this 22rd day of June A.D., 1957.
The above information was faxed to APFN on Aug. 6, 1993 from ULTRA LIFE
From FAX: 618-594-7712. This FAX included the following page:
FLUORIDE UPDATE. AUGUST 1993
RECENT DISCLOSURES SHOW THE DANGER OF FLUORIDE AND THE SUPPRESSION OF DAMAGING INFORMATION FROM THE PUBLIC.
FRIDAY MAY 15, 1992, WILLIAM MARCUS, Ph.D, CHIEF TOXICOLOGIST AND SENIOR ADVISOR AT THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, (EPA) WAS FIRED FOR HIS DISCLOSURES OF HIP FRACTURE, CARCINOGENIC, AND OTHER HEALTH AND LIFE THREATENING EFFECTS OF FLUORIDATION.
JUNE 3, 1993, NEW JERSEY ASSEMBLYMAN JOHN V. KELLY, 242 WASHINGTON AVE. NUTLEY, NJ 07110, MADE A STATEMENT BEFORE THE STATE ASSEMBLY, PARTS OF WHICH ARE HEREIN QUOTED. "WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY DEFINES SODIUM FLUORIDE AS A COLORLESS CRYSTALLINE, WATER SOLUBLE, POISONOUS SOLID, USED CHIEFLY IN THE FLUORIDATION OF WATER, AS AN INSECTICIDE, AND AS A RODENTICIDE. THE NJ HEALTH DEPT RELEASED A STUDY LAST NOVEMBER SHOWING AREAS WITH FLUORIDATED WATER SUPPLIES IN NJ HAD FOUR TIMES MORE OSTEOSCAROMA, A RARE FORM OF BONE CANCER, THAN AREAS NON-FLUORIDATED."
"THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS RECOMMENDED PRESCIPTION FLUORIDE SUPPLEMENTS FOR CHILDREN--FLUORIDE DROPS FOR NEW BORNS AND TABLETS FOR OLDER CHILDREN."
"MY OFFICE CONTACTED AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY FOR STUDIES OF SAFETY AND EFFECTIVINESS OF THESE SUPLEMENTS" "THEY WERE NOT IN POSSESSION, ADVISED THESE COULD BE OBTAINED FROM NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
DENTAL RESEARCH IN WASHINGTON, THEY DID NOT HAVE THEM AND ADVISED THESE STUDIES ARE IN DOMAIN OF U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION." FDA HAS HAD NO DRUG APPLICATION, NO STUDIES SHOWING SAFETY OR EFFECTIVENESS OF FLUORIDE DROPS OR TABLETS, ACCORDING TO FRANK FAZZARI, CHIEF OF FDA DRUG
COMPLIANCE BRANCH, THESE ARE UNAPPROVED NEW DRUGS.!!!
THESE POISONOUS DRUGS HAVE BEEN PRESCRIBED FOR OVER 30 YEARS TO MILLIONS OF CHILDREN. IT IS IRRESPONSIBLE TO PERMIT THESE PRODUCTS TO BE PRESCRIBED TO THE MOST VULNERABLE SEGMENT OF OUR POPULATION, OUR CHILDREN.
THE UNION REPRESENTING EPA SCIENTISTS HAS BEEN VERY CRITICAL OF FLUORIDE, CHARGING THAT MANY STUDIES LINKING FLUORIDE TO A WIDE RANGE OF HEALTH PROBLEMS INCLUDING CANCER, HIP AND OTHER BONE FRACTURES, ARE SUPPRESSED. ASSEMBLYMAN KELLY THEN REQUSTED DR. D. KESSLER, COMMISSIONER,
FDA IMMEDIATELY REMOVE THESE FROM THE MARKET, LETTER DATED JUNE 3, 1993. AT THIS DATE NOTHING HAS BEEN DONE TO STOP THIS NATIONWIDE POISONING.
FOR MORE INFO CONTACT: FRANK FAZZARI AT FDA 301-295-8073 - DR. WM. MARCUS (301) 972-0707, DR. ROBT. CARTON, (301) 874-2948 OR (301) 619-2004, FORMER PRESIDENT EPA SCIENTIST UNION.
COULD THERE BE A DEEPER, MORE SINISTER REASON FOR FORCING FLUORIDE ON THE PUBLIC? READ THE NOTORIZED STATEMENT FROM OLIVER KENNETH GOFF. YOU DECIDE IF FLUORIDATION IS ONE MAJOR REASON WHY WE ARE A NATION OF "SHEEPLE" AND "COUCH POTATOES".
Fluoride & the A-Bomb Program
During the ultra-secret Manhattan Project, a report was commissioned to
assess the effect of fluoride on humans.
That report was classified "secret" for reasons of "national security".
Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 5, #3 (April-May 1998).
PO Box 30, Mapleton Qld 4560 Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Telephone: +61 (0)7 5442 9280; Fax: +61 (0)7 5442 9381
From our web page at: http://www.peg.apc.org/~nexus/
_ Joel Griffiths and Chris Bryson 1997
4 West 104th Street
New York, NY 10025, USA
Some 50 years after United States authorities began adding fluoride to
public water supplies to reduce cavities in children's teeth, recently
discovered declassified government documents are shedding new light on the
roots of that still-controversial public health measure, revealing a
surprising connection between the use of fluoride and the dawning of the
Today, two-thirds of US public drinking water is fluoridated. Many
municipalities still resist the practice, disbelieving the government's
assurances of safety.
Since the days of World War II when the US prevailed by building the
world's first atomic bomb, the nation's public health leaders have
maintained that low doses of fluoride are safe for people and good for
That safety verdict should now be re-examined in the light of hundreds of
once-secret WWII-era documents obtained by these reporters [authors
Griffiths and Bryson], including declassified papers of the Manhattan
Project-the ultra-secret US military program that produced the atomic bomb.
Fluoride was the key chemical in atomic bomb production, according to the
documents. Massive quantities-millions of tons-were essential for the
manufacture of bomb-grade uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons
throughout the Cold War. One of the most toxic chemicals known, fluoride
emerged as the leading chemical health hazard of the US atomic bomb
program, both for workers and for nearby communities, the documents reveal.
Other revelations include:
Ñ Much of the original proof that fluoride is safe for humans in low doses
was generated by A-bomb program scientists who had been secretly ordered to
provide "evidence useful in litigation" against defence contractors for
fluoride injury to citizens. The first lawsuits against the American A-bomb
program were not over radiation, but over fluoride damage, the documents
Ñ Human studies were required. Bomb program researchers played a leading
role in the design and implementation of the most extensive US study of the
health effects of fluoridating public drinking water, conducted in
Newburgh, New York, from 1945 to 1955. Then, in a classified operation
code-named "Program F", they secretly gathered and analysed blood and
tissue samples from Newburgh citizens with the cooperation of New York
State Health Department personnel.
Ñ The original, secret version (obtained by these reporters) of a study
published by Program F scientists in the August 1948 Journal of the
American Dental Association1 shows that evidence of adverse health effects
from fluoride was censored by the US Atomic Energy Commission
(AEC)-considered the most powerful of Cold War agencies-for reasons of
Ñ The bomb program's fluoride safety studies were conducted at the
University of Rochester-site of one of the most notorious human radiation
experiments of the Cold War, in which unsuspecting hospital patients were
injected with toxic doses of radioactive plutonium. The fluoride studies
were conducted with the same ethical mindset, in which "national security"
EVIDENCE OF FLUORIDE'S ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS
The US Government's conflict of interest and its motive to prove fluoride
safe in the furious debate over water fluoridation since the 1950s has only
now been made clear to the general public, let alone to civilian
researchers, health professionals and journalists. The declassified
documents resonate with a growing body of scientific evidence and a chorus
of questions about the health effects of fluoride in the environment.
Human exposure to fluoride has mushroomed since World War II, due not only
to fluoridated water and toothpaste but to environmental pollution by major
industries, from aluminium to pesticides, where fluoride is a critical
industrial chemical as well as a waste by-product.
The impact can be seen literally in the smiles of our children. Large
numbers (up to 80 per cent in some cities) of young Americans now have
dental fluorosis, the first visible sign of excessive fluoride exposure
according to the US National Research Council. (The signs are whitish
flecks or spots, particularly on the front teeth, or dark spots or stripes
in more severe cases.)
Less known to the public is that fluoride also accumulates in bones. "The
teeth are windows to what's happening in the bones," explained Paul
Connett, Professor of Chemistry at St Lawrence University, New York, to
these reporters. In recent years, paediatric bone specialists have
expressed alarm about an increase in stress fractures among young people in
the US. Connett and other scientists are concerned that fluoride-linked to
bone damage in studies since the 1930s-may be a contributing factor.
The declassified documents add urgency: much of the original 'proof ' that
low-dose fluoride is safe for children's bones came from US bomb program
scientists, according to this investigation.
Now, researchers who have reviewed these declassified documents fear that
Cold War national security considerations may have prevented objective
scientific evaluation of vital public health questions concerning fluoride.
"Information was buried," concludes Dr Phyllis Mullenix, former head of
toxicology at Forsyth Dental Center in Boston and now a critic of
fluoridation. Animal studies which Mullenix and co-workers conducted at
Forsyth in the early 1990s indicated that fluoride was a powerful central
nervous system (CNS) toxin and might adversely affect human brain
functioning even at low doses. (New epidemiological evidence from China
adds support, showing a correlation between low-dose fluoride exposure and
diminished IQ in children.) Mullenix's results were published in 1995 in a
reputable peer-reviewed scientific journal.2
During her investigation, Mullenix was astonished to discover there had
been virtually no previous US studies of fluoride's effects on the human
brain. Then, her application for a grant to continue her CNS research was
turned down by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), when an NIH
panel flatly told her that "fluoride does not have central nervous system
Declassified documents of the US atomic bomb program indicate otherwise. A
Manhattan Project memorandum of 29 April 1944 states: "Clinical evidence
suggests that uranium hexafluoride may have a rather marked central nervous
system effect... It seems most likely that the F [code for fluoride]
component rather than the T [code for uranium] is the causative factor."
The memo, from a captain in the medical corps, is stamped SECRET and is
addressed to Colonel Stafford Warren, head of the Manhattan Project's
Medical Section. Colonel Warren is asked to approve a program of animal
research on CNS effects. "Since work with these compounds is essential, it
will be necessary to know in advance what mental effects may occur after
exposure... This is important not only to protect a given individual, but
also to prevent a confused workman from injuring others by improperly
performing his duties."
On the same day, Colonel Warren approved the CNS research program. This was
in 1944, at the height of World War II and the US nation's race to build
the world's first atomic bomb.
For research on fluoride's CNS effects to be approved at such a momentous
time, the supporting evidence set forth in the proposal forwarded along
with the memo must have been persuasive. The proposal, however, is missing
from the files at the US National Archives. "If you find the memos but the
document they refer to is missing, it's probably still classified," said
Charles Reeves, chief librarian at the Atlanta branch of the US National
Archives and Records Administration where the memos were found. Similarly,
no results of the Manhattan Project's fluoride CNS research could be found
in the files.
After reviewing the memos, Mullenix declared herself "flabbergasted". "How
could I be told by NIH that fluoride has no central nervous system effects,
when these documents were sitting there all the time?" She reasons that the
Manhattan Project did do fluoride CNS studies: "That kind of warning, that
fluoride workers might be a danger to the bomb program by improperly
performing their duties-I can't imagine that would be ignored." But she
suggests that the results were buried because of the difficult legal and
public relations problems they might create for the government.
The author of the 1944 CNS research proposal attached to the 29 April memo
was Dr Harold C. Hodge-at the time, chief of fluoride toxicology studies
for the University of Rochester division of the Manhattan Project.
Nearly 50 years later at the Forsyth Dental Center in Boston, Dr Mullenix
was introduced to a gently ambling elderly man, brought in to serve as a
consultant on her CNS research. This man was Harold C. Hodge. By then,
Hodge had achieved status emeritus as a world authority on fluoride safety.
"But even though he was supposed to be helping me," said Mullenix, "he
never once mentioned the CNS work he had done for the Manhattan Project."
The "black hole" in fluoride CNS research since the days of the Manhattan
Project is unacceptable to Mullenix who refuses to abandon the issue.
"There is so much fluoride exposure now, and we simply do not know what it
is doing. You can't just walk away from this."
Dr Antonio Noronha, an NIH scientific review advisor familiar with Dr
Mullenix's grant request, told us that her proposal was rejected by a
scientific peer-review group. He termed her claim of institutional bias
against fluoride CNS research "far-fetched". He then added: "We strive very
hard at NIH to make sure politics does not enter the picture." \
THE NEW JERSEY FLUORIDE POLLUTION INCIDENT
The documentary trail begins at the height of World War II, in 1944, when a
severe pollution incident occurred downwind of the E.I. DuPont de Nemours
Company chemical factory in Deepwater, New Jersey. The factory was then
producing millions of pounds of fluoride for the Manhattan Project whose
scientists were racing to produce the world's first atomic bomb.
The farms downwind in Gloucester and Salem counties were famous for their
high-quality produce. Their peaches went directly to the Waldorf Astoria
Hotel in New York City; their tomatoes were bought up by Campbell's Soup.
But in the summer of 1944 the farmers began reporting that their crops were
blighted: "Something is burning up the peach crops around here." They said
that poultry died after an all-night thunderstorm, and that farm workers
who ate produce they'd picked would sometimes vomit all night and into the
"I remember our horses looked sick and were too stiff to work," Mildred
Giordano, a teenager at the time, told these reporters. Some cows were so
crippled that they could not stand up; they could only graze by crawling on
The account was confirmed in taped interviews with Philip Sadtler (shortly
before he died), of Sadtler Laboratories of Philadelphia, one of the
nation's oldest chemical consulting firms. Sadtler had personally conducted
the initial investigation of the damage.
Although the farmers did not know it, the attention of the Manhattan
Project and the federal government was rivetted on the New Jersey incident,
according to once-secret documents obtained by these reporters.
A memo, dated 27 August 1945, from Manhattan Project chief Major-General
Leslie R. Groves to the Commanding General of Army Service Forces at the
Pentagon, concerns the investigation of crop damage at Lower Penns Neck,
New Jersey. It states: "At the request of the Secretary of War, the
Department of Agriculture has agreed to cooperate in investigating
complaints of crop damage attributed...to fumes from a plant operated in
connection with the Manhattan Project."
After the war's end, Dr Harold C. Hodge, the Manhattan Project's chief of
fluoride toxicology studies, worriedly wrote in a secret memo (1 March
1946) to his boss, Colonel Stafford L. Warren, chief of the Medical
Section, about "problems associated with the question of fluoride
contamination of the atmosphere in a certain section of New Jersey".
"There seem to be four distinct (though related) problems:
"1. A question of injury of the peach crop in 1944.
"2. A report of extraordinary fluoride content of vegetables grown in this
"3. A report of abnormally high fluoride content in the blood of human
individuals residing in this area.
"4. A report raising the question of serious poisoning of horses and cattle
in this area."
FLUORIDE DAMAGE: THE FIRST LAWSUITS
The New Jersey farmers waited until the war was over before suing DuPont
and the Manhattan Project for fluoride damage-reportedly the first lawsuits
against the US atomic bomb program. Although seemingly trivial, the
lawsuits shook the government, the secret documents reveal.
Under the personal direction of Major-General Groves, secret meetings were
convened in Washington, with compulsory attendance by scores of scientists
and officials from the US War Department, the Manhattan Project, the Food
and Drug Administration, the Agriculture and Justice departments, the US
Army's Chemical Warfare Service and Edgewood Arsenal, the Bureau of
Standards, as well as lawyers from DuPont. Declassified memos of the
meetings reveal a secret mobilisation of the full forces of the government
to defeat the New Jersey farmers.
In a memo (2 May 1946) copied to General Groves, Manhattan Project Lt
Colonel Cooper B. Rhodes notes that these agencies "are making scientific
investigations to obtain evidence which may be used to protect the interest
of the Government at the trial of the suits brought by owners of peach
orchards in...New Jersey".
Regarding these lawsuits, General Groves wrote to the Chairman of the
Senate Special Committee on Atomic Energy in a memo of 28 February 1946,
advising that "the Department of Justice is cooperating in the defense of
Why the national security emergency over a few lawsuits by New Jersey
farmers? In 1946 the United States began full-scale production of atomic
bombs. No other nation had yet tested a nuclear weapon, and the A-bomb was
seen as crucial for US leadership of the postwar world. The New Jersey
fluoride lawsuits were a serious roadblock to that strategy. "The specter
of endless lawsuits haunted the military," wrote Lansing Lamont in Day of
Trinity, his acclaimed book about the first atomic bomb test.3
"If the farmers won, it would open the door to further suits which might
impede the bomb program's ability to use fluoride," commented Jacqueline
Kittrell, a Tennessee public interest lawyer who examined the declassified
fluoride documents. (Kittrell specialises in nuclear-related litigation and
has represented plaintiffs in several human radiation experiment cases.)
"The reports of human injury were especially threatening because of the
potential for enormous settlements-not to mention the PR problem," she
Indeed, DuPont was particularly concerned about the "possible psychologic
reaction" to the New Jersey pollution incident, according to a secret
Manhattan Project memo of 1 March 1946. Facing a threat from the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) to embargo the region's produce because of "high
fluoride content", DuPont dispatched its lawyers to the FDA offices in
Washington, DC, where an agitated meeting ensued. According to a memo sent
next day to General Groves, DuPont's lawyer argued that "in view of the
pending suits...any action by the Food and Drug Administration...would have
a serious effect on the DuPont Company and would create a bad public
relations situation". After the meeting adjourned, Manhattan Project
Captain John Davies approached the FDA's Food Division chief and "impressed
upon Dr White the substantial interest which the Government had in claims
which might arise as a result of action which might be taken by the Food
and Drug Administration".
There was no embargo. Instead, according to General Groves' memo of 27
August 1946, new tests for fluoride in the New Jersey area were to be
conducted not by the Department of Agriculture but by the US Army's
Chemical Warfare Service (CWS)-because "work done by the Chemical Warfare
Service would carry the greatest weight as evidence if...lawsuits are
started by the complainants".
Meanwhile, the public relations problem remained unresolved: local citizens
were in a panic about fluoride. The farmers' spokesman, Willard B. Kille,
was personally invited to dine with General Groves (then known as "the man
who built the atomic bomb") at his office at the War Department on 26 March
1946. Although diagnosed by his doctor as having fluoride poisoning, Kille
departed the luncheon convinced of the government's good faith. Next day he
wrote to the general, expressing his wish that the other farmers could have
been present so that "they too could come away with the feeling that their
interests in this particular matter were being safeguarded by men of the
very highest type whose integrity they could not question".
A broader solution to the public relations problem was suggested by
Manhattan Project chief fluoride toxicologist Harold C. Hodge in a second
secret memo (1 May 1946) to Medical Section chief Colonel Warren: "Would
there be any use in making attempts to counteract the local fear of
fluoride on the part of residents of Salem and Gloucester counties through
lectures on F toxicology and perhaps the usefulness of F in tooth health?"
Such lectures were indeed given, not only to New Jersey citizens but to the
rest of the nation throughout the Cold War.
The New Jersey farmers' lawsuits were ultimately stymied by the
government's refusal to reveal the key piece of information that would have
settled the case: how much fluoride DuPont had vented into the atmosphere
during the war. "Disclosure would be injurious to the military security of
the United States," Manhattan Project Major C. A. Taney, Jr, had written in
a memo soon after the war's end (24 September 1945).
The farmers were pacified with token financial settlements, according to
interviews with descendants still living in the area.
"All we knew is that DuPont released some chemical that burned up all the
peach trees around here," recalled Angelo Giordano whose father James was
one of the original plaintiffs. "The trees were no good after that, so we
had to give up on the peaches." Their horses and cows acted and walked
stiffly, recalled his sister Mildred. "Could any of that have been the
fluoride?" she asked. (The symptoms she detailed are cardinal signs of
fluoride toxicity, according to veterinary toxicologists.) The Giordano
family has also been plagued by bone and joint problems, Mildred added.
Recalling the settlement received by the family, Angelo Giordano told these
reporters that his father said he "got about $200".
The farmers were stonewalled in their search for information about
fluoride's effects on their health, and their complaints have long since
been forgotten. But they unknowingly left their imprint on history: their
complaints of injury to their health reverberated through the corridors of
power in Washington and triggered intensive, secret, bomb program research
on the health effects of fluoride.
"PROGRAM F": SECRET FLUORIDE RESEARCH
A secret memo (2 May 1946) to General Groves from Manhattan Project Lt
Colonel Rhodes states: "Because of complaints that animals and humans have
been injured by hydrogen fluoride fumes in [the New Jersey] area, although
there are no pending suits involving such claims, the University of
Rochester is conducting experiments to determine the toxic effect of
Much of the proof of fluoride's alleged safety in low doses rests on the
postwar work done at the University of Rochester in anticipation of
lawsuits against the bomb program for human injury.
For the top-secret Manhattan Project to delegate fluoride safety studies to
the University of Rochester was not surprising. During WWII the US Federal
Government became involved for the first time in large-scale funding of
scientific research at government-owned labs and private colleges. Those
early spending priorities were shaped by the nation's often-secret military
The prestigious upstate New York college in particular had housed a key
wartime division of the Manhattan Project to study the health effects of
the new "special materials" such as uranium, plutonium, beryllium and
fluoride which were being used in making the atomic bomb. That work
continued after the war, with millions of dollars flowing from the
Manhattan Project and its successor organisation, the Atomic Energy
Commission (AEC). (Indeed, the bomb left an indelible imprint on all of US
science in the late 1940s and 1950s. Up to 90 per cent of all federal funds
for university research came from either the Department of Defense or the
AEC in this period, according to Noam Chomsky in his 1997 book, The Cold
War and the University.4)
The University of Rochester Medical School became a revolving door for
senior bomb-program scientists. The postwar faculty included Stafford
Warren, the top medical officer of the Manhattan Project, and Harold C.
Hodge, chief of fluoride research for the bomb program.
But this marriage of military secrecy and medical science bore deformed
offspring. The University of Rochester's classified fluoride studies,
code-named "Program F", were started during the war and continued up until
the early 1950s. They were conducted at its Atomic Energy Project (AEP), a
top-secret facility funded by the AEC and housed at Strong Memorial
Hospital. It was there that one of the most notorious human radiation
experiments of the Cold War took place, in which unsuspecting hospital
patients were injected with toxic doses of radioactive plutonium.
Revelation of this experiment-in a Pulitzer Prize&endash;winning account by
Eileen Welsome-led to a 1995 US presidential investigation and a
multimillion-dollar cash settlement for victims.
Program F was not about children's teeth. It grew directly out of
litigation against the bomb program, and its main purpose was to furnish
scientific ammunition which the government and its nuclear contractors
could use to defeat lawsuits for human injury. Program F's director was
none other than Dr Harold C. Hodge- who led the Manhattan Project
investigation of alleged human injury in the New Jersey fluoride pollution
Program F's purpose is spelled out in a classified 1948 report. It reads:
"To supply evidence useful in the litigation arising from an alleged loss
of a fruit crop several years ago, a number of problems have been opened.
Since excessive blood-fluoride levels were reported in human residents of
the same area, our principal effort has been devoted to describing the
relationship of blood fluorides to toxic effects."
The litigation referred to and the claims of human injury were of course
against the bomb program and its contractors. Thus the purpose of Program F
was to obtain evidence useful in litigation against the bomb program. The
research was being conducted by the defendants.
The potential conflict of interest is clear. If lower dose ranges were
found hazardous by Program F, this might have opened the bomb program and
its contractors to public outcry and lawsuits for injury to human health.
Lawyer Jacqueline Kittrell commented further: "This and other documents
indicate that the University of Rochester's fluoride research grew out of
the New Jersey lawsuits and was performed in anticipation of lawsuits
against the bomb program for human injury. Studies undertaken for
litigation purposes by the defendants would not be considered
scientifically acceptable today because of their inherent bias to prove the
Unfortunately, much of the proof of fluoride's safety rests on the work
performed by Program F scientists at the University of Rochester. During
the postwar period, that university emerged as the leading academic centre
for establishing the safety of fluoride as well as its effectiveness in
reducing tooth decay, according to Rochester Dental School spokesperson
William H. Bowen, MD. The key figure in this research, Bowen said, was Dr
Harold C. Hodge-who also became a leading national proponent of
fluoridating public drinking water.
THE A-BOMB AND WATER FLUORIDATION
Program F's interest in water fluoridation was not just "to counteract the
local fear of fluoride on the part of residents", as Hodge had earlier
written to Colonel Warren. The bomb program required human studies of
fluoride's effects, just as it needed human studies of plutonium's effects.
Adding fluoride to public water supplies provided one opportunity.
Bomb-program scientists played a prominent, if unpublicised, role in the
nation's first-planned water fluoridation experiment in Newburgh, New York.
The Newburgh Demonstration Project is considered the most extensive study
of the health effects of fluoridation, supplying much of the evidence that
low doses are allegedly safe for children's bones and good for their teeth.
Planning began in 1943 with the appointment of a special New York State
Health Department committee to study the advisability of adding fluoride to
Newburgh's drinking water. The chairman of the committee was, again, Dr
Harold C. Hodge, then chief of fluoride toxicity studies for the Manhattan
Project. Subsequent members of the committee included Henry L. Barnett, a
captain in the Project's Medical Section, and John W. Fertig, in 1944 with
the Office of Scientific Research and Development-the super-secret Pentagon
group which sired the Manhattan Project. Their military affiliations were
kept secret. Hodge was described as a pharmacologist, Barnett as a
paediatrician. Placed in charge of the Newburgh project was David B. Ast,
chief dental officer of the New York State Health Department. Ast had
participated in a key secret wartime conference on fluoride, held by the
Manhattan Project in January 1944, and later worked with Dr Hodge on the
Project's investigation of human injury in the New Jersey incident,
according to once-secret memos.
The committee recommended that Newburgh be fluoridated. It selected the
types of medical studies to be done, and it also "provided expert guidance"
for the duration of the experiment.
The key question to be answered was: "Are there any cumulative effects,
beneficial or otherwise, on tissues and organs other than the teeth, of
long-continued ingestion of such small concentrations?" According to the
declassified documents, this was also key information sought by the bomb
program. In fact, the program would require "long-continued" exposure of
workers and communities to fluoride throughout the Cold War.
In May 1945, Newburgh's water was fluoridated, and over the next 10 years
its residents were studied by the New York State Health Department.
In tandem, Program F conducted its own secret studies, focusing on the
amounts of fluoride Newburgh citizens retained in their blood and
tissues-information called for by the bomb program in connection with
litigation. "Possible toxic effects of fluoride were in the forefront of
consideration," the advisory committee stated. Health department personnel
cooperated, shipping blood and placenta samples to the Program F team at
the University of Rochester. The samples were collected by Dr David B.
Overton, the department's chief of paediatric studies at Newburgh.
The final report of the Newburgh Demonstration Project, published in 1956
in the Journal of the American Dental Association,5 concluded that "small
concentrations" of fluoride were safe for US citizens. The biological
proof, "based on work performed...at the University of Rochester Atomic
Energy Project", was delivered by Dr Hodge.
Today, news that scientists from the A-bomb program secretly shaped and
guided the Newburgh fluoridation experiment and studied the citizens' blood
and tissue samples is greeted with incredulity.
"I'm shocked...beyond words," said present-day Newburgh Mayor Audrey Carey,
commenting on these reporters' findings. "It reminds me of the Tuskegee
experiment that was done on syphilis patients down in Alabama."
As a child in the early 1950s, Mayor Carey was taken to the old Newburgh
firehouse on Broadway which housed the public health clinic. There, doctors
from the Newburgh fluoridation project studied her teeth, and a peculiar
fusion of two fingerbones on her left hand which she's had since birth.
(Carey said that her granddaughter has white dental-fluorosis marks on her
Mayor Carey wants answers from the government about the secret history of
fluoride and the Newburgh fluoridation experiment. "I absolutely want to
pursue it," she said. "It is appalling to do any kind of experimentation
and study without people's knowledge and permission."
When contacted by these reporters, the now 95-year-old David B. Ast, former
director of the Newburgh experiment, said he was unaware that Manhattan
Project scientists were involved. "If I had known, I would have been
certainly investigating why, and what the connection was," he said. Did he
know that blood and placenta samples from Newburgh were being sent to
bomb-program researchers at the University of Rochester? "I was not aware
of it," Ast replied. Did he recall participating in the Manhattan Project's
secret wartime conference on fluoride in January 1944, or going to New
Jersey with Dr Hodge to investigate human injury in the DuPont case, as
secret memos state? He told these reporters he had no recollection of any
Bob Loeb, a spokesperson for the University of Rochester Medical Center,
confirmed that blood and tissue samples from Newburgh had been tested by
the University's Dr Hodge. On the ethics of secretly studying US citizens
to obtain information useful in litigation against the A-bomb program, he
said: "That's a question we cannot answer." He referred inquiries to the US
Department of Energy (DOE), successor to the Atomic Energy Commission.
Jayne Brady, a spokesperson for the Department of Energy in Washington
confirmed that a review of DOE files indicated that a "significant reason"
for fluoride experiments conducted at the University of Rochester after the
war was "impending litigation between the DuPont company and residents of
New Jersey areas". However, she added: "DOE has found no documents to
indicate that fluoride research was done to protect the Manhattan Project
or its contractors from lawsuits."
On Manhattan Project involvement in Newburgh, Brady stated: "Nothing that
we have suggests that the DOE or predecessor agencies-especially the
Manhattan Project-authorised fluoride experiments to be performed on
children in the 1940s."
When told that these reporters have several documents that directly tie the
AEP-the Manhattan Project's successor agency at the University of
Rochester-to the Newburgh experiment, DOE spokesperson Brady later conceded
her study was confined to "the available universe" of documents.
Two days later, Brady faxed a statement for clarification. "My search only
involved the documents that we collected as part of our human radiation
experiments project; fluoride was not part of our research effort."
"Most significantly," the statement continued, "relevant documents may be
in a classified collection at the DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, known
as the Records Holding Task Group. This collection consists entirely of
classified documents removed from other files for the purpose of classified
document accountability many years ago [and was] a rich source of documents
for the human radiation experiments projects."
SUPPRESSION OF ADVERSE HEALTH FINDINGS
The crucial question arising from the investigation is whether adverse
health findings from Newburgh and other bomb-program fluoride studies were
suppressed. All AEC-funded studies had to be declassified before
publication in civilian medical and dental journals. Where are the original
The transcript of one of the major secret scientific conferences of World
War II-on "fluoride metabolism"-is missing from the files of the US
National Archives and is "probably still classified", according to the
librarian. Participants in the January 1944 conference included key figures
who promoted the safety of fluoride and water fluoridation to the public
after the war: Harold Hodge of the Manhattan Project, David B. Ast of the
Newburgh Demonstration Project, and US Public Health Service dentist H.
Trendley Dean, popularly known as "the father of fluoridation".
A WWII Manhattan Project c lassified report (25 July 1944) on water
fluoridation is missing from the files of the University of Rochester
Atomic Energy Project, the US National Archives, and the Nuclear Repository
at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The next four numerically
consecutive documents are also missing, while the remainder of the "M-1500
series" is present.
"Either those documents are still classified, or they've been 'disappeared'
by the government," said Clifford Honicker, Executive Director of the
American Environmental Health Studies Project in Knoxville, Tennessee,
which provided key evidence in the public exposure and prosecution of US
human radiation experiments.
Seven pages have been cut out of a 1947 Rochester bomb project notebook
entitled "DuPont Litigation". "Most unusual," commented the medical
school's chief archivist, Chris Hoolihan.
Similarly, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests lodged by these
reporters over a year ago with the DOE for hundreds of classified fluoride
reports have failed to dislodge any. "We're behind," explained Amy
Rothrock, chief FOIA officer at Oak Ridge National Laboratories.
So, has information been suppressed? These reporters made what appears to
be the first discovery of the original classified version of a fluoride
safety study by bomb program scientists. A censored version of this study
was later published in the August 1948 Journal of the American Dental
Association.6 Comparison of the secret version with the published version
indicates that the US AEC did censor damaging information on fluoride-to
the point of tragicomedy. This was a study of the dental and physical
health of workers in a factory producing fluoride for the A-bomb program;
it was conducted by a team of dentists from the Manhattan Project.
Ñ The secret version reports that most of the men had no teeth left. The
published version reports only that the men had fewer cavities.
Ñ The secret version says the men had to wear rubber boots because the
fluoride fumes disintegrated the nails in their shoes. The published
version does not mention this.
Ñ The secret version says the fluoride may have acted similarly on the
men's teeth, contributing to their toothlessness. The published version
omits this statement and concludes that "the men were unusually healthy,
judged from both a medical and dental point of view".
After comparing the secret and published versions of the censored study,
toxicologist Phyllis Mullenix commented: "This makes me ashamed to be a
scientist." Of other Cold War&endash;era fluoride safety studies, she
asked: "Were they all done like this?"
Asked for comment on the early links of the Manhattan Project to water
fluoridation, Dr Harold Slavkin, Director of the National Institute for
Dental Research-the US agency which today funds fluoride research-said: "I
wasn't aware of any input from the Atomic Energy Commission." Nevertheless,
he insisted that fluoride's efficacy and safety in the prevention of dental
cavities over the last 50 years is well proved. "The motivation of a
scientist is often different from the outcome," he reflected. "I do not
hold a prejudice about where the knowledge comes from."
1. Dale, Peter P., and McCauley, H. B, "Dental Conditions in Workers
Chronically Exposed to Dilute and Anhydrous Hydrofluoric Acid", Journal of
the American Dental Association, vol. 37, no. 2, August 1948, pp. 131-140.
Note that Dale and McCauley were both Manhattan Project and, later, Program
F personnel; they also authored the secret Manhattan Project paper.
2. Mullenix, Phyllis et al., "Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats",
Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 17, no. 2, 1995, pp. 169-177.
3. Lamont, Lansing, Day of Trinity, Atheneum, New York City, 1965.
4. Chomsky, Noam, The Cold War and the University, New Press, New York
City, 1997 (distributed by W.W. Norton & Co. Inc., NYC).
5. Hodge, H. C., "Fluoride metabolism: its significance in water
fluoridation", in "Newburgh-Kingston caries-fluorine study: final report",
Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 52, March 1956.
6. Dale and McCauley, ibid.
About the Authors:
Joel Griffiths is a medical writer based in New York City. He is the author
of a book on radiation hazards that included one of the first revelations
of human radiation experiments, and has contributed numerous articles to
medical journals and popular publications.
Chris Bryson, who holds a Master's degree in journalism, is an independent
reporter for BBC Radio, ABC-TV and public television in New York City, and
writes for a variety of publications.
The authors wish to thank Clifford Honicker, Executive Director of the
American Environmental Health Studies Project, Knoxville, TN, for his
indispensable archival research.
Copies of 155 pages of supporting documents, including all the declassified
papers referred to in this article, can be obtained from the following
contacts for a small fee to cover copying and postage:
Ñ Australia: Australian Fluoridation News, GPO Box 935G, Melbourne,
Victoria 3001, phone (03) 9592 5088, fax (03) 9592 4544.
Ñ New Zealand: New Zealand Pure Water Association, 278 Dickson Road,
Papamoa, Bay of Plenty, phone (07) 542 0499.
Ñ UK: National Pure Water Association of the UK, 12 Dennington Lane,
Crigglestone, Wakefield, WF4 3ET, phone 01924 254433, fax 01924 242380.
Ñ USA: Waste Not newsletter, 82 Judson Street, Canton, NY 13617, phone
(315) 379 9200, fax (315) 379 0448, e-mail email@example.com .
Forward via firstname.lastname@example.org
FLUORIDE: A PROTECTED POLLUTANT
Since 1937, the foreign medical literature has contained hundreds of
articles on the wide variety of troubles that can be caused by fluorine.
The same is true of the veterinary literature in this country.
But none of this appears in our medical literature. The things that
fluorine can do to people are seen every day everywhere. The trouble
is to know which cases are actually caused by fluorine.
Fluoridation: The Overdosing of America - Fact or Fiction?
THE Water FAQ
American Dental Association. Fluoridation Facts. Chicago
There are many reported cases of fluorosis, a mottling (dark brown/gray
staining and spotting of teeth) and crumbling of teeth due to too much
flouride placed in municipal water supplies. A warning to parents of small
children: if children eat large globs of toothpaste while brushing their
teeth, stop the habit immediately, and place small amounts of toothpaste
on a child's toothbrush. Teach the child not to swallow the toothpaste.
Fluorides and Fluoridation
TIME-RELEASED FLUORIDE FOR OSTEOPOROSIS Report #6190 5/3/94
EPA - HYDROGEN FLUORIDE (AND RELATED COMPOUNDS) (1) 7664-39-3
Chronic (long-term) exposure to fluoride at low levels has a beneficial
effect of dental cavity prevention and may also be useful for the treatment
of osteoporosis. Exposure to higher levels of fluoride through drinking
water may cause dental fluorosis or mottling, while very high exposures
through drinking water or air can result in skeletal fluorosis.
Fluoride the Aging Factor
Price information not available. You can still order this item, and we
will request approval of the price via e-mail prior to shipment.
Paperback 2nd edition (June 1986) Health Action Pr; ISBN: 0913571008
Subject: [MC] About Scientific Information!
Date: Mon, 3 Aug 1998 23:32:07 -0700
From: "Stephen A. Tueting" email@example.com
Unbelievably fabulous expose on the history and technologies involved.
The ability to transmit from one brain to another is there. See the
medical journal Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1996,
Suppl. 45. "Continuous Wave-Form Analysis". It's another piece of
deciphering the brains EEG and translating to a different persons EEG
and then writing it to that brain.
This is a brilliant piece of literature and extremely accurate.
firstname.lastname@example.org Email list send Subscribe or UNsubscribe in Subject line:
**COPYRIGHT NOTICE** In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, any
copyrighted work in this message is distributed under fair use without
profit or payment to those who have expressed a prior interest in
receiving the included information for non-profit research and
educational purposes only.
AMERICA: OVERDOSED ON FLUORIDE
TOP FLUORIDE EXPERT APOLOGIZES FOR PUSHING POISON
Fluoridation / Fluoride
Toxic Chemicals In Your Water
Fluoride compounds which are put in water (fluoridation), toothpaste and supplement tablets (including some vitamins) were never tested for safety before approval.
50 Reasons to Oppose
Don't Swallow Your Toothpaste
Shocking News About Fluoride
Fluoride - The Lunatic Drug
Fluoridation status of some countries
FLUORIDE WEB SITES
Fluoride is a corrosive poison
Fluoride ingestion has very little to do with dental health, it does have a lot to do with disposing of industrial waste and making people docile and subservient, it also has a lot to do with MONEY.
Clearly, the dental profession would not and HAS not put itself out of business.
Respected Medical Professionals and Scientists
are warning that water fluoridation
has dangerous long-term consequences to health.
Fluoride & the A-Bomb Program
During the ultra-secret Manhattan Project, a report was commissioned to assess the effect of fluoride on humans. That report was classified "secret" for reasons of "national security".
Fluoride: An Invisible Killer
"FLUORIDE DANGERS TO THE THYROID"
How Fluoride Kills Human Cells
Join The Nationwide Call for
Congressional Hearings on Fluoridation
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